Tuesday, December 31, 2019

Understanding Fate in Oedipus Tyrannos - 1196 Words

The Greeks were one of the most powerful empires of early civilizations with the well documented conquest, legends, gods, etc. One of their most significant things left of their empire, is their theatrical style, none bigger than Tragedy. The Greek Tragedy was their basis of Drama and is still studied today. Their view of the world and life could be personified in the plays and by the personages. It is the case in the play Oedipus Tyrannos. The play, written by Sophocles, represents the typical Greek view of the world with all the values that the Greeks wanted to show. This play is probably the best example to represent the typical tragic hero, in that case Oedipus. The dominant theme that Sophocles wanted to demonstrate in the play was†¦show more content†¦Oedipus taught that he had escaped his fate from what he knew, by going away from his adopted family but, that action led him to accomplish his fate that was killing his father and sleeping with his mother and have childr en with her. He killed his father, king Laios, in an argument in a road closes to Thebes for passage rights, solved the riddle of the sphinx and became the king, slept with his mother and had children with her and finally on hearing the truth, removes his sight as a sign of dishonour to him, his family and to the Gods. This shows that fate is something that was beyond human power and that is not possible to chance or avoid it. One definition that can explain why the characters in Greek tragedy were doomed to accomplish their fate would be the fact that both the characters and mankind in the plays lacked both free will and reflective actions that led them to have a fatal fate (Kierkegaard, 1944). It is also the human side that led Oedipus to his fate. The goodness of his actions of trying to get away from what he taught was his real father and mother in order for them to live and escape his fate. For example, Oedipus is taught to be arrogant but, his arrogance can be interpreted by r efusing to hear or see or even admit what he has done to try to escape his fate but, eventually, it turned on him in the bad way because his fate still managed to claim his superiority over humans. Another great example of his goodness is the simple fact of him wantingShow MoreRelatedOedipus As A Tragic Hero1724 Words   |  7 PagesIn the story of Oedipus, Oedipus is considered a â€Å"Tragic Hero† because of the tragic fate and effect that he had upon his life. My definition of a tragedy is a great loss that has a unhappy ending to which concluded me to state that Oedipus falls under that category. Throughout the book, Oedipus is leading himself to his own destruction when trying to find the killer of the late King Laios. So when a journal article I found published by The John Hopkins University Press stated that a â€Å"tragic heroRead MoreMorality in Oedipus Rex Essay1785 Words   |  8 Pagesthe time of the ancient Greeks Sophocles’ play Oedipus Tyrannus is see n as the quintessential model of Greek Tragedy. This is due to the intricate questions of morality that are masterfully woven into the literature and the fact that â€Å"perhaps no classical Greek play that has stimulated as much critical discussion† (Harris and Platzner Classical Mythology: Images and Insights, p.648). One of the dominant arguments the tragedy generates is whether Oedipus is responsible for the abhorrent crimes of patricideRead MoreScripting Stage Space in Oedipus the King and Hamlet2416 Words   |  10 Pagespeople have long been studying and teaching plays as if they were meant to be read rather than performed. A central part of a plays meaning is the way it was originally designed to work on stage. William Shakespeares Hamlet and Sophocles Oedipus the King have long been included on academic lists for scholarly study as literary texts. As someone who has studied both texts in just the manner Hornby mentions, I would suggest that what is lost when a scholar treats a play text as literature isRead MoreEssay on Analysis of Penelope as Moral Agent in Homer’s Odyssey3049 Words   |  13 Pagesthis essay that I could find is the ignorance of a few facts that could possibly be construed as being in opposition to her findings. Since I am not familiar with and have not read any of the outside texts to which Foley refers (Aristotles Oedipus Tyrannos, Poetics, Politics, and Ethics, the Hippocratic medical texts, and the feminist theory of Carol Gilligan), I can only assume that her interpretations of these texts are correct. In any case, she uses Aristotle and Hippocrates in order to develop

Sunday, December 22, 2019

Essay British Poetry - 4052 Words

Knowledge of contemporary British poetry is of great importance when it comes to understanding the reigning trends of England. The 1970s saw a fair amount of polemic concerning the discontinuities of the national traditions, most of it concerned with poetry, all of it vulnerable to a blunt totalizing which demonstrated the triumphant ability of nation to organize literary study and judgment--as it does still, perhaps more than ever. It remains the case twenty years later that there is a strong hint of the majority of the english poets to rediscover their ‘Englishness’ as a poet, and at the same time the presence of the various other cultures ensures that their remains a deep variety in the crative material. The temptation†¦show more content†¦When the war ended the new poetry which emerged still bore traces of the measured and uneventful thirties verse that had gone before it. Poets of what became known as the neo-Romantic movement, Vernon Watkins (1906-1967), W.S.Graham (1918-1986), Patricia Beer (1919- ), George Barker (1913-1991) and John Heath-Stubbs (1918- ) and others, wrote as if the British world had not changed irrevocably. The influence of pre-war founder figures W.B.Yeats (1865-1939), T.S.Eliot (1888 - 1965), Edwin Muir (1887-1959), Louis MacNeice (1907-1963), W.H.Auden (1907-1973), and Robert Graves (1895-1985) remained strong. The modernists David Jones (1895-1974) and Basil Bunting (1900-1985), with Hugh MacDiarmid (C.M.Greive - 1892-1978) in Scotland, stayed outsider forces. In Wales the Thomases, Dylan (1914-1953) and R.S. (1913-2000), made great marks on the map. But the poetry was not yet a true product of its times. The reaction came in the early fifties, and by the time Dylan Thomas died in 1953, The Movement as the new tendency was called had obtained a coherence. The work of its poets nurtured rationality, was inhospitable to myth, was conversationally pitched (although lacking the speech rhythms of American counterparts like William Carlos Williams (1883-1963) and was deliberately formal and clear. Movement poets opposed modernism and had little truck with international influences. They regarded themselves as a direct continuation of mainstream EnglishShow MoreRelatedThe Evolution of British Poetry Essay927 Words   |  4 Pages The Evolution of British Poetry nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Throughout the literary history of the Renaissance, a gradual but dramatic change in the poetic style of the time becomes apparent. From one contribution to another, the rebellion between the poetic styles is evident. Early Elizabethan and Jacobean poetry demonstrates the love that mankind shares and the universal truths that the people of that time held so dear. On through the neoclassical and romantic eras, the style becomes centeredRead MoreLiterary Group in British Poetry5631 Words   |  23 PagesThe history of English poetry stretches from the middle of the 7th century to the present day. Over this period, English poets have written some of the most enduring poems in Western culture, and the language and its poetry have spread around the globe. Consequently, the term English poetry is unavoidably ambiguous. It can mean poetry written in England, or poetry written in the English language. The earliest surviving poetry was likely transmitted orally and then written down in versions that doRead MoreBritish Romantic Poetry As A Revolutionary Part Of England s Culture Essay1489 Words   |  6 PagesBritish romantic poetry was remarkable for a myriad of reasons. Not only did it vouch for a focus on nature in literature, but also showed an increased interest in both the emotion of the average person, and a heightened esteem for imagination as well as the wonder and amazement that accompanied children. Of course, it showed a darker side of the world as well, with some of the more distinguished writers focusing on the poor and how they lived. Stylistically, there was also a clear influence fromRead MoreVowel and British Poetry Assignment784 Words   |  4 PagesMEG-01: BRITISH POETRY ASSIGNMENT Max. Marks: 100 Programme: MC;G Assignment Code: MEGO 1 llMA120 10- 1 1 Dear Student. In a conventional class your teacher would have discussed your assignment with you, pointed out what made a good essay and what a bad one. We have done exactly the same thing in Unit 52 of the Thereafter decide upon a topic, i.e. a period or literary group in the history of British Poetry. You may, if you wish, select a topic from the list given in 52.2.1 (p.70). AlternativelyRead MoreEssay on Walt Whitman1376 Words   |  6 Pagesrhythmical, metrical, and structural poetry. It was this end that bothered Whitman, for he believed that each word in a poem should serve only one purpose: to harmonize with the name, nature, and drift of the poem. To understand exactly what characteristics of traditional poetic rules posed such problems for Whitman, we must establish a working definition of what this means. Traditional poetic rules are those determined through the history of British poetry . This statement in itself leavesRead MoreHistory Of Ancient Poetry Ghosh ( 1 )995 Words   |  4 PagesHistory of the ancient poetry GHOSH (1) The period of time of concerning 500-100AD in British history was characterized by foreign invasions and internal struggles. This resulted within the admixture of many races, tongues and cultures. Once the Romans departed from British Isles in 407 AD fighting continuing between the Picts and therefore the Scots who had lost their common enemy. The fifth century additionally saw conquests and therefore the gradual occupationRead MoreJohn Keats Essay968 Words   |  4 PagesEnfield School; he succumbed John to be a surgeon, so John worked at Guy’s Hospital, where he attended lectures and operations. (â€Å"Keats, John(1795-1821).†) Even though John was an apothecary, he maintained a strong passion for writing poetry. In 1816, John envied writing poetry as a profession, which led to his remembrance to this day. Abbey was not happy with John’s decision, so Abbey refused to financially support John. The decision of John being a poet had a detrimental financial strain on him and affectedRead MoreWar and Modernism Poems During the Earky 1900s Essay999 Words   |  4 Pageswhich Yeats is often regarded as one of the founders. Modernism was a movement that outstretched literature and poetry, yet provided a new amount of freedom for war poets, as it allowed them to express themselves in the modernist fashion of free forms and room for criticism on the modern world (Matterson). William Butler Yeats’ â€Å"The Second Coming†, is an example for the modernist poetry typical for the movement, as it criticizes the horrors of the wars in new artistic ways. This poem paints the depressingRead MoreHistory of American Poetry753 Words   |  3 PagesAt its beginning, American poetry was extremely influenced by its European roots. This is evidenced by the fact that the first colonists were English, who also brought along their poetic styles and patterns. These European traits set the standard for the genesis of American poetry, which will later we further developed and adapted by Walt Whitman and Emily Dickinson, who are now considered to be the first great American poets. Because of the strong ties to European poetry, American poets wanted toRead MoreFeminist Poets Like Emily Dickinson And Anne Bradstreet881 Words   |  4 Pagesand assertive about their rights and the ‘rights for women’ in general. While they might have been successful at making a good attempt to obliterate gender biases but still there are lot of disparities between the two genders. Nevertheless, their poetry reflects a deep angst. Anne Bradstreet, an eighteen-year-old educated upper-class English woman, arrived in Salem in 1630 (Cowell 418). Two hundred years after Bradstreet’s arrival in America, in 1830, in a town about a hundred miles from Salem:

Saturday, December 14, 2019

The Lost Duke of Wyndham Chapter Twelve Free Essays

string(39) " looks much worse than it actually is\." Jack did (eventually) find his bedchamber, but even though he knew he’d likely still have been happily asleep if he hadn’t been determined to join Grace at breakfast, when he lay down atop his covers, intending to take a restorative nap, he found himself unable to do so. This was profoundly irritating. He had long prided himself on his ability to fall asleep at will. We will write a custom essay sample on The Lost Duke of Wyndham Chapter Twelve or any similar topic only for you Order Now It had come in handy during his years as a soldier. No one ever managed to acquire the correct sleep, either in quality or amount. He would steal his slumber where he could, and his friends had been eternally jealous that he could prop up against a tree, close his eyes, and be asleep within three minutes. But not, apparently, today, even though he’d traded a knobby tree for the finest mattress money could buy. He closed his eyes, took his customary long, slow breaths, and†¦nothing. Nothing but Grace. He’d like to have said she was haunting him, but that would have been a lie. It wasn’t her fault that he was a fool. And in truth, it wasn’t just that he was completely desperate for her (although he was, and most uncomfortably, too). He couldn’t get her out of his mind because he didn’t want to get her out of his mind. Because if he stopped thinking about Grace, he would have to start thinking about other things. The possibility of his being the Duke of Wyndham, for one. Possibility†¦Bah. He knew it was true. His parents had been married. All that was needed was to locate the parish register. He closed his eyes, trying to push back the overwhelming feeling of dread that was bearing down on him. He should have just lied and said that his parents had never wed. But blast it, he had not known the consequences when he said that they had. No one had told him he’d be crowned the bloody duke. All he’d known was that he was so damned furious with the dowager for kidnapping him and with Wyndham for staring at him like he was something to be swept under the rug. And then Wyndham had said, in that smarmy, superior voice of his: If indeed your parents were married†¦. Jack had snapped out his reply before he had a chance to consider the consequences of his actions. These people were not better than he was. They had no right to cast aspersions on his parents. It was too late now, though. Even if he tried to lie and recant his words, the dowager would not rest until she’d burned a trail through Ireland in search of the marriage documents. She wanted him to inherit, that much was clear. It was difficult to imagine her caring for anyone, but she had apparently adored her middle son. His father. And even though the dowager had not shown any particular fondness for him – not that he had made much of an effort to impress – she clearly preferred him over her other grandson. Jack had no idea what had transpired between the dowager and the current duke, if anything. But there was little affection between the pair. Jack stood and walked to the window, finally admitting defeat and giving up on the notion of sleep. The morning sun was already bright and high in the sky, and he was suddenly seized by a need to be out of doors, or rather, out of Belgrave. Strange, that one could feel so closed-in in such a massive dwelling. But he did, and he wanted out. Jack strode across the room and snatched up his coat. It was satisfyingly shabby atop the fine apparel of Wyndham’s he’d donned that morning. He almost hoped he bumped into the dowager, just so she could see him all dusty and road-worn. Almost. But not quite. With quick, long strides he made his way down to the main hall, just about the only location he knew how to get to. His footsteps were annoyingly loud on the marble as he walked forth. Everything seemed to echo here. It was too big, too impersonal, too – â€Å"Thomas?† He stopped. It was a female voice. Not Grace. Young, though. Unsure of her surroundings. â€Å"Is that – I’m so sorry.† It was indeed a young woman, of medium height, blond, with rather fetching hazel eyes. She was standing near the doorway of the drawing room he had been dragged into the day before. Her cheeks were delightfully pink, with a smattering of freckles he was sure she detested. (All women did, he’d learned.) There was something exceptionally pleasant about her, he decided. If he weren’t so obsessed with Grace, he would flirt with her. â€Å"Sorry to disappoint,† he murmured, offering her a roguish smile. This wasn’t flirting. This was how he conversed with all ladies. The difference was in the intention. â€Å"No,† she said quickly, â€Å"of course not. It was my mistake. I was just sitting back there.† She motioned behind her to a seating area. â€Å"You looked rather like the duke as you walked by.† This must be the fiancee, Jack realized. How interesting. It was difficult to imagine why Wyndham was dragging his heels on the marriage. He swept into a gracious bow. â€Å"Captain Jack Audley, at your service, ma’am.† It had been some time since he’d introduced himself with his military rank, but somehow it seemed the thing to do. She bobbed a polite curtsy. â€Å"Lady Amelia Willoughby.† â€Å"Wyndham’s fiancee.† â€Å"You know him, then? Oh, well, of course you do. You are a guest here. Oh, you must be his fencing partner.† â€Å"He told you about me?† The day grew more interesting by the second. â€Å"Not much,† she admitted. She blinked, staring at a spot that was not his eyes. He realized that she was looking at his cheek, which was still discolored from his altercation with her fiance the day before. â€Å"Ah, this,† he murmured, affecting mild embarrassment. â€Å"It looks much worse than it actually is. You read "The Lost Duke of Wyndham Chapter Twelve" in category "Essay examples"† She wanted to ask about it. He could see it in her eyes. He wondered if she’d seen Wyndham’s blackened eye. That would certainly set her curiosity on fire. â€Å"Tell me, Lady Amelia,† he said conversationally, â€Å"what color is it today?† â€Å"Your cheek?† she asked with some surprise. â€Å"Indeed. Bruises tend to look worse as they age, have you noticed? Yesterday it was quite purple, almost regally so, with a hint of blue in it. I haven’t checked in the mirror lately.† He turned his head to offer her a better view. â€Å"Is it still as attractive?† Her eyes widened, and for a moment she seemed not to know what to say. Jack wondered if she was unused to men flirting with her. Shame on Wyndham. He had done her a great disservice. â€Å"Er, no,† she replied. â€Å"I would not call it attractive.† He laughed. â€Å"No mincing words for you, eh?† â€Å"I’m afraid those blue undertones of which you were so proud have gone a bit green.† He leaned in with a warm smile. â€Å"To match my eyes?† â€Å"No,† she said, seemingly immune to his charms, â€Å"not with the purple overlaying it. It looks quite horrible.† â€Å"Purple mixed with green makes†¦?† â€Å"Quite a mess.† Jack laughed again. â€Å"You are charming, Lady Amelia. But I am sure your fiance tells you that on every possible occasion.† She did not reply. Not that she could; her only possible answers were yes, which would reveal her conceit, or no, which would reveal Wyndham’s negligence. Neither was what a lady wished to show to the world. â€Å"Do you await him here?† he asked, thinking to himself that it was time to end the conversation. Lady Amelia was charming, and he could not deny a certain level of entertainment that came from making her acquaintance without Wyndham’s knowledge, but he was still a bit wound up inside, and he was looking forward to time out of doors. â€Å"No, I just – † She cleared her throat. â€Å"I am here to see Miss Eversleigh.† Grace? And who was to say that a man could not acquire a bit of fresh air in a drawing room? One had only to crack open a window. â€Å"Have you met Miss Eversleigh?† Lady Amelia asked. â€Å"Indeed I have. She is most lovely.† â€Å"Yes.† There was a pause, just long enough for Jack to wonder at it. â€Å"She is universally admired,† Lady Amelia finished. Jack thought about making trouble for Wyndham. A simple, murmured, It must be difficult for you, with so beautiful a lady in residence here at Belgrave, would go a long way. But it would make equal trouble for Grace, which he was not prepared to do. And so instead he chose the bland and boring: â€Å"Are you and Miss Eversleigh acquaintances?† â€Å"Yes. I mean, no. More than that, I should say. I have known Grace since childhood. She is most friendly with my elder sister.† â€Å"And surely with you, as well.† â€Å"Of course.† Lady Amelia acceded. â€Å"But more so with my sister. They are of an age, you see.† â€Å"Ah, the plight of the younger sibling,† he murmured. â€Å"You share the experience?† â€Å"Not at all,† he said with a grin. â€Å"I was the one ignoring the hangers-on.† He thought back to his days with the Audleys. Edward had been but six months younger, and Arthur a mere eighteen months after that. Poor Arthur had been left out of any number of escapades, and yet wasn’t it interesting – it was Arthur with whom he had ultimately formed the strongest bond. Arthur had been uncommonly perceptive. They shared that. Jack had always been good at reading people. He’d had to. Sometimes it was his only means of gathering information. But as a boy he’d viewed Arthur as an annoying little whelp; it wasn’t until they were both students at Portora Royal that he realized that Arthur saw everything, too. And although he had never come out and said it, Jack knew that he’d seen everything in him as well. But he refused to grow maudlin. Not right now, not with a charming lady for company and the promise of another at any moment. And so he pushed more happy thoughts of Arthur to the forefront of his mind and said, â€Å"I was the eldest of the brood. A fortuitous position, I think. I should have been most unhappy not to have been in charge.† Lady Amelia smiled at that. â€Å"I am the second of five, so I can appreciate your sentiments as well.† â€Å"Five! All girls?† he guessed. â€Å"How did you know?† â€Å"I have no idea,† he said quite honestly, â€Å"except that it is such a charming image. It would have been a shame to have sullied it with a male.† â€Å"Is your tongue always this silver, Captain Audley?† He gave her one of his best half smiles. â€Å"Except when it’s gold.† â€Å"Amelia!† They both turned. Grace had entered the room. â€Å"And Mr. Audley,† she said, looking surprised to see him there. â€Å"Oh, I’m sorry,† Lady Amelia said, turning to him. â€Å"I thought it was Captain Audley.† â€Å"It is,† he said with a very slight shrug. â€Å"Depending upon my mood.† He turned to Grace and bowed. â€Å"It is indeed a privilege to see you again so soon, Miss Eversleigh.† She blushed. He wondered if Lady Amelia noticed. â€Å"I did not realize you were here,† Grace said after bobbing a curtsy. â€Å"There is no reason why you should have done. I was heading outside for a restorative walk when Lady Amelia intercepted me.† â€Å"I thought he was Wyndham,† Lady Amelia said. â€Å"Isn’t that the oddest thing?† â€Å"Indeed,† Grace replied, looking acutely uncomfortable. â€Å"Of course I was not paying much attention,† Lady Amelia continued, â€Å"which I am sure explains it. I only caught sight of him out of the corner of my eye as he strode past the open doorway.† Jack turned to Grace. â€Å"It makes so much sense when put that way, does it not?† â€Å"So much sense,† Grace echoed. She glanced over her shoulder. â€Å"Are you waiting for someone, Miss Eversleigh?† Jack inquired. â€Å"No, I was just thinking that his grace might like to join us. Er, since his fiancee is here, of course.† â€Å"Is he returned, then?† Jack murmured. â€Å"I was not aware.† â€Å"That is what I have been told,† Grace said, and he was certain that she was lying, although he could not imagine why. â€Å"I have not seen him myself.† â€Å"Alas,† Jack said, â€Å"he has been absent for some time.† Grace swallowed. â€Å"I think I should get him.† â€Å"But you only just got here.† â€Å"Nonetheless – â€Å" â€Å"We shall ring for him,† Jack said, since he wasn’t going to allow her such an easy escape. Not to mention that he was rather looking forward to the duke discovering him here with both Grace and Lady Amelia. He crossed the room and gave the bellpull a yank. â€Å"There,† he said. â€Å"It is done.† Grace smiled uncomfortably and moved to the sofa. â€Å"I believe I will sit down.† â€Å"I will join you,† Lady Amelia said with alacrity. She hurried after Grace and took a seat right beside her. Together they sat, stiff and awkward. â€Å"What a fetching tableau the two of you make,† he said, because really, how could he not tease them? â€Å"And me, without my oils.† â€Å"Do you paint, Mr. Audley?† Lady Amelia inquired. â€Å"Alas, no. But I have been thinking I might take some lessons. It is a noble pursuit for a gentleman, wouldn’t you say?† â€Å"Oh, indeed.† Silence, then Lady Amelia nudged Grace. â€Å"Mr. Audley is a great appreciator of art,† Grace blurted out. â€Å"You must be enjoying your stay at Belgrave, then,† Lady Amelia said. Her face was the perfect picture of polite interest. He wondered how long it had taken her to hone the expression. As the daughter of an earl, she would have any number of social obligations. He imagined that the expression – placid and unmoving, yet not unfriendly – was quite useful. â€Å"I look forward to touring the collections,† Jack replied. â€Å"Miss Eversleigh has consented to show them to me.† Lady Amelia turned to Grace as best she could, considering that they were wedged up against one another. â€Å"That was very kind of you, Grace.† Grace grunted something that was probably meant to be a response. â€Å"We plan to avoid cupids,† Jack said. â€Å"Cupids?† Lady Amelia echoed. Grace looked the other way. â€Å"I have discovered that I am not fond of them.† Lady Amelia regarded him with a curious mixture of irritation and disbelief. Jack glanced at Grace to gauge her reaction, then returned his attention to Lady Amelia. â€Å"I can see that you disagree, Lady Amelia.† â€Å"What is there not to like about cupids?† He perched himself on the arm of the opposite sofa. â€Å"You don’t find them rather dangerous?† â€Å"Chubby little babies?† â€Å"Carrying deadly weapons,† he reminded her. â€Å"They are not real arrows.† He made another attempt to draw Grace into the conversation. â€Å"What do you think, Miss Eversleigh?† â€Å"I don’t often think about cupids,† she said tersely. â€Å"And yet we have already discussed them twice, you and I.† â€Å"Because you brought them up.† Jack turned to Lady Amelia. â€Å"My dressing room is positively awash in them.† Lady Amelia turned to Grace. â€Å"You were in his dressing room?† â€Å"Not with him,† Grace practically snapped. â€Å"But I have certainly seen it before.† Jack smiled to himself, wondering what it said about him that he so liked making trouble. â€Å"Pardon,† Grace muttered, clearly embarrassed by her outburst. â€Å"Mr. Audley,† Lady Amelia said, turning to him with determination. â€Å"Lady Amelia.† â€Å"Would it be rude if Miss Eversleigh and I took a turn about the room?† â€Å"Of course not,† he said, even though he could see in her face that in fact she did think it was rude. But he did not mind. If the ladies wished to share confidences, he was not going to stand in their way. Besides, he enjoyed watching Grace move. â€Å"Thank you for your understanding,† Lady Amelia said, linking her arm through Grace’s and pulling them both to their feet. â€Å"I do feel the need to stretch my legs, and I fear that your stride would be far too brisk for a lady.† How she uttered that without choking on her tongue, he did not know. But he merely smiled and watched them as they moved as one to the window, leaving him behind and out of earshot. How to cite The Lost Duke of Wyndham Chapter Twelve, Essay examples

Friday, December 6, 2019

Casing Milling free essay sample

Abstract Sidetracking has been proven to be a cost saving solution over drilling new horizontal wells to increase production from existing wells. Most problems that might be encountered when removing casing can be identified prior to beginning a lining removal job. By identifying these potential problems, the proper equipment can be used effectively to keep the job running smoothly. Technical advances in mill design such as the development of a cutting structure that effectively manages the cuttings size and is more wear resistant has increased the efficiency of the entire operation. Introduction A cost effective means to enhance production and provide for reservoir stimulation from existing platforms is to sidetrack wells from existing slots to reach new bottom hole locations. In the process of recovering these slots to facilitate the sidetrack, one or more casing strings must e removed from the existing well. Casing removal is accomplished by a combination of process such as cutting, pulling and milling. We will write a custom essay sample on Casing Milling or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In typical wells 13 3/8† and 9 5/8† casing is cut and pulled from the well. Liners from 5 ? † through 9 5. 8† may be milled to facilitate their removal. Liners and casing cemented to the surface require removal by milling long intervals which have historically been slow and at best, time consuming process. Numerous operational problems exist including difficulty in cuttings removal and potentially stuck string from â€Å"bird-nesting† of cuttings. With new technology available, these problems can be eliminated or minimized to make liner removal a low risk economical choice for slot recovery. This paper describes the process for recovering these platform slots and provides a review of new technology that enhances the economics of the process. Case studies will show how proper selection of the BHA, mud and mud handling system, mill design, and milling parameters make slot recovery and liner removal fast and economical. Many of the problems associated with past practices are eliminated. Milling Considerations Prior to embarking on a prolonged milling job, there are a number of issues that should be considered. These considerations can mean the difference between a project being completed on time and on budget or project running into multiple problems and costing much more than anticipated. With proper preplanning the probability of performing a good effective job will be greatly increased. Casing milling jobs are now being planned and completed at hole angles above 50 60 degrees and through long tangent sections. In the pat without the assistance of technology, these types of jobs would have a high degree of uncertainty of being completed. The result was that a section would be cut or a Whipstock would be set to facilitate a sidetrack far above the desired target depth for the completed milling job. It is important to consider the following before beginning a job: (1) Casing eccentricity, (2) Cutting removal, and (3) Pilot mill design. Casing Eccentricity. An important aspect of planning a milling job is to determine if there is any eccentricity between the casing strings. This is an important consideration for determining the proper stabilization below the pilot mill. If the inner casing to be milled is held in place with cement and with casing centralizers installed then there is a good chance that the casing strings will be concentric with one another. Therefore, the stabilizer OD of the pilot assembly should be the drift ID of the inner casing string being milled. This will ensure that the mil tracks true to the centerline of the inner casing. It will also ensure that the collars are milled completely. If the collars are not completely milled, problems can be encountered at a later time when the skinned collar is circulated to the surface. Usually this results in a plugged flow line. Should the casing not have centralizers installed and the hole angle is 30 degrees or more, it is safe to assume that the casing strings are eccentric. This will require a different strategy. A reduced OD stabilizer will be required below the mill to allow it to walk away from the ID of the casing being milled. This will prevent the mill from milling into the primary string casing. This is important because it is usually required that the primary string of casing still be testable after milling is complete. This is particularly important on wells where the hole angle is great enough that a large side load may be placed on the mill. A properly design mill with gage protection on the OD of the blades will also help protect from milling the primary string of casing. Cutting Removal Removal of cuttings during milling has a great impact on the success of a milling job. If cuttings are not removed quickly and efficiently then downtime due to bird-nesting can become a problem. Bird-nesting occurs whenever a large number of cuttings accumulate in an area in the annulus. Surface equipment, flow line configuration, and milling fluids all become important for proper cutting removal. Surface Equipment A typical arrangement of flow equipment needed to remove cuttings on the surface is as follows. Flow is routed from the bell nipple through open flow ditches to two shale shakers with primary 24 to 50 mesh screens. The fluid then exits the shale shaker through secondary 84 to 110 mesh screens. Large ditch magnets are strategically placed in the flow line and suction intakes. The magnets should be cleaned by rig personnel every half hour to remove settled swarf. Flow line Configuration To avoid flip-out of swarf in the bell nipple and BOP riser and the subsequent bird-nesting and pack-offs, it is necessary to reduce the size of the BOP and bell nipple riser from 30† to13 3/8†. This will allow a higher annular velocity to keep the BOP and BOP riser clear of swarf. It is important that the flow lines from the riser to the shakers be as large and straight as possible with all valves removed. There should not be any obstructions in the flow lines to allow a bird-nest to form. Milling fluids The selection of the proper milling fluid is critical to a successful milling job. Polymer based fluids are generally preferable because of their increased lifting capacity. In order to obtain the maximum lifting capacity of the fluid it is preferable to keep the 6 rpm viscometer reading above 45 and the plastic viscosity as low as possible.